Internal Migration in Mongolia

|Mongolia

Mongolia has undergone dramatic changes in economic and social development in the last two decades. The dramatic changes in the Mongolian economy reflect the difficulties faced in the agricultural sector and provide the basis for the population shift from rural to urban.

In recent years, internal migration has become an issue of concern in Mongolia. However, it was only in the 1990s that there was sustained policy and research interest in the topic. Much of this interest was stimulated by the contribution to the growth of Ulaanbaatar from migration and the large out-migration from rural areas at the start of the twentieth century.

There is no indication that levels of internal migration will decline in the near future and in all probability there will be increasing movement because of improvement in the transport infrastructure and the continued development of migration networks.

The large number of young Mongolians will also fuel migration. Because of the potential impact of migration at both the individual and community level it is important to understand the factors that contribute to migration, the impact of migration, and policy options to deal with migration. This opinion paper contributes to this understanding.