November 1, 2005｜Russia & Mongolia
Executive Director, Institute for Future
Mongolia covers an area of 1,566,500 square km and has a population of 2.8 million. The country has four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The weather temperature is 35 degrees Celsius in summer and minus 40 degrees Celsius in wintertime. Our country’s characteristic blue sky with clouds can be seen on most days of the year.
However, a smokescreen covers Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, between October and May every year. Over 800,000 people live in Ulaanbaatar, which is Mongolia’s largest administrative, social, cultural and industrial center. The population tends to migrate towards Ulaanbaatar, with about 100,000 people from rural areas migrating to the capital city every year.
Ulaanbaatar is situated in a low-lying basin and is surrounded by Mount Chingeltei to the north, Mount Bogd to the south, Mount Songinokhairkhan to the west and Mount Bayanzurkh to the east. Therefore, a screen of smoke and dust usually covers the city.
Ulaanbaatar is the world’s coldest capital and heating is required for almost nine months of the year.
Air pollution originates from the following sources:
Air pollution has become a serious problem in Ulaanbaatar and it has a strong seasonal pattern, being much worse in the winter months when SO2 and dust concentrations are many times higher than in summer.
[Translated by ERINA]