Survey of Attitudes Among Russian Young People


At the end of September 2001, we undertook the following anonymous survey of 36 Japanese language students at the MIRBIS Japan Management Training Center, asking these Russian young people about their thoughts, interests and feelings. As they were students of Japanese, it is undeniable that they had a greater interest in Japan than the average Russian, but the responses to this survey convey to a certain extent a picture of young Russians of today, so I hope that it will be of some use to you. The letters a-z and numerals I-IX identify the individual respondents, so with reference to the information given below about each person’s job, sex and age, it will be possible to build up a picture of that person through their responses to each question.


  1. Job, sex and age of respondents
    1. Private English tutor, female, 21
    2. Japanese teacher, female, 51
    3. Office worker, female, 36
    4. Air-conditioning technician & economist, female, 25
    5. Researcher, female, 30
    6. Teacher, female, 52
    7. Manager of a Japanese restaurant, female, 21
    8. Accountant, female, 23
    9. Interpreter, female, 20
    10. Duty-free shop consultant, female, 21
    11. Housewife (unemployed, seeking part-time work), female, 24
    12. Manager, male, 36
    13. Researcher, male, 22
    14. Graduate student, Asia Research Institute (researching ancient Japanese history), male, 26
    15. 4th year student, Faculty of Fine Art, Russian Academy of Painting, Sculpture & Architecture, female, 20
    16. Housewife, female, 28
    17. Unemployed, male, 29
    18. Graduate student, M.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, female, 22
    19. Secretary, female, 23
    20. Student, Faculty of Philosophy, M.L. Lomonosov Moscow State University, male, 20
    21. Housewife, female, 24
    22. Student at the Russian Academy for Foreign Trade and engineer at the Information Development Research Institute, male, 18
    23. Assistant to a member of parliament, male, 39
    24. Businesswoman, female, 32
    25. Housewife, female, 36
    26. Student, Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics, female, 20
    1. Chief, Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, male, 27
    2. Interpreter, female, 36
    3. Web page designer, male, 49
    4. Security firm employee, male, 34
    5. Computer company manager, programmer, male, 30
    6. Housewife, female, 44
    7. Art gallery employee, female, 42
    8. Housewife (unemployed, seeking part-time work),female, 40
    9. Unemployed, female, 25
    18 – 24: 10 women, 2 men / 25 – 30: 5 women, 3 men / over 30: 10 women, 6 men
  2. Are you satisfied in your current job? If not, please state why.
    1. Not a steady job, would like to work for a TV station.
    2. Satisfied.
    3. Hates her job because she uses neither her Japanese nor her brain.
    4. Dissatisfied, hate her job.
    5. Satisfied. f. Dissatisfied, hate her job.
    6. Dissatisfied, hate her job.
    7. Dissatisfied (pay is low).
    8. Basically, satisfied.
    9. Satisfied at present.
    10. Job is OK.
    11. Has time to study, so job is OK despite the low income.
    12. Partly satisfied (would like to expand company).
    13. Pay is low.
    14. Satisfied (gets to meet many interesting people).
    15. Satisfied because can learn painting and foreign languages at the same time as studying art history.
    16. No response.
    17. Unemployed.
    18. Satisfied with university classes.
    19. Satisfied (because can use Japanese and English).
    20. Satisfied because can study the things in which he is interested.
    21. Satisfied.
    22. Totally satisfied.
    23. Work is interesting.
    24. Very satisfied.
    25. Satisfied with childcare facilities.
    26. Satisfied with the quality of lessons and with her prospects as an expert.
    1. Satisfied with research into nanotechnology.
    2. Dissatisfied because there is little Japanese interpreting work.
    3. Has sufficient orders for homepages but would like to use Japanese in his work.
    4. Satisfied (plenty of free time).
    5. Dissatisfied, low wages.
    6. Income is too low.
    7. Wanted to work at an art gallery so likes her job.
    8. Unemployed.
  3. How much do you earn each month? What level of income would make you satisfied? ($1 = approx. Rb30 = ¥120)
    1. About $200/month at present; would like $500-$1,000/month.
    2. Rb300 (just under ¥1,200); would like more.
    3. Income is more than sufficient (amount not disclosed).
    4. $550/month; would like $750.
    5. Would like monthly income to rise by about $70 to $400-$500.
    6. Rb3,000/month (satisfied) = ¥12,000.
    7. Would like income to be stable at $600-$800.
    8. $200/month; would like $1,500.
    9. $300/month.
    10. Rb3,000/month (satisfied) = ¥12,000.
    11. Would like $800.
    12. Low; hoping for a lot more money.
    13. Would like $1,000.
    14. $100 (need $300-$400).
    15. Satisfied: scholarship money usually Rb166 = ¥644, but gets Rb250 (¥1,000).
    16. Husband earns Rb12,000 ($400); would like $1,000.
    17. Would like $500.
    18. Scholarship about Rb200 = ¥800. Russian scholarships are too small.
    19. Rb2,800 = ¥10,000 (would like Rb5,000).
    20. Scholarship is $10; would like more than one hundred times that amount.
    21. Enough to buy food (housewife).
    22. Scholarship is Rb166, wages are Rb2,000 = ¥8,000.
    23. Rb2,000 (footnote from respondent: If only it could be $2000!).
    24. At least $5,000.
    25. Housewife – no income.
    26. Scholarship is Rb300 = ¥1,200; would like Rb700 = ¥2,800.
    1. $200/month (would like $800).
    2. Interpreting is paid by the hour or the day, so it varies; would like at least $1,000/month.
    3. $250-$300 depending on the company’s profits (would like more than $300).
    4. Rb15,000/month = ¥60,000; satisfied with the amount.
    5. Rb1,600 = ¥6,400; would like Rb5,000.
    6. Rb8,000/month = ¥32,000; would like Rb20,000 (¥80,000).
    7. Rb5,500/month = ¥22,000; would like $500-$700.
    8. Husband earns Rb15,000 = $500, would like it to double to $1,000.
    9. No income.
  4. What is the structure of your family? If you are not married, indicate whether you have a partner.
    1. Mother and older sister; has a partner.
    2. Mother, father, aunt, husband, daughter, younger sister.
    3. Married; daughter lives separately.
    4. Has a partner.
    5. Mother, father, husband, siblings.
    6. Married: husband, daughter, grandchild.
    7. Mother, father.
    8. Mother, father, siblings.
    9. Mother, father, younger sister.
    10. Mother, father, younger sister.
    11. Mother, older sister; no partner.
    12. Lives alone; has a partner.
    13. Wife, two daughters, son, dog and cat.
    14. Mother; has a partner.
    15. Mother, father, older siblings, grandmother, dog; no partner.
    16. Mother, father, husband.
    17. Lives alone.
    18. Mother, younger sister; has a partner.
    19. Mother, father, siblings.
    20. Mother, father, grandmother.
    21. Mother, father, husband, dog; no partner.
    22. Mother, father.
    23. Mother, younger brother.
    24. Husband.
    25. Husband, two children.
    26. Mother, father, older brother, grandmother; no partner.
    1. Mother, younger sister; has a girlfriend.
    2. Mother.
    3. Wife, two daughters.
    4. Wife, two sons.
    5. Mother, father, younger sister; no partner.
    6. Mother, husband, daughter. no partner.
    7. Divorced; lives with mother, father, two younger brothers. Has a younger sister living in Kyrgyzstan.
    8. Husband, three children.
  5. If you are married, please specify how you share living costs and the burden of housework.
    1. Unmarried
    2. There is no division; costs are covered from overall income, 90% – 95% of which is needed to cover living expenses. Husband covers his own expenses himself.
    3. Costs split 50:50 between husband and wife. Wife does the housework.
    4. Unmarried
    5. All expenditure from husband’s income; housework is split 80:20 between wife and husband.
    6. Husband covers 80% of expenditure; housework is split 50:50.
    7. Unmarried
    8. Divorced
    9. Costs split 70:30 between husband and wife; housework is split 50:50.
    10. Mother covers 50% of living costs, father covers 30%, younger sister and self cover 20%.
    11. Lives alone, does housework himself.
    12. Housework split 90:10 between wife and husband.
    13. Unmarried o. Live alone.
    14. Live alone.
    15. Husband 10%, wife 90%.
    16. Live alone.
    17. Live alone.
    18. Everything divided equally.
    19. Unmarried.
    20. Mother 40%, self 40%, father 10%, husband 10%.
    21. Unmarried
    22. Mother 90%, self 10%; late father’s pension covers home rental cost.
    23. Not disclosed.
    24. Living costs are all covered by husband; housework is split 80:20 between wife and husband.
    1. Unmarried
    2. Unmarried. Living costs: self 99%, mother 1%; housework: self 80%, mother 20%.
    3. Living costs: husband 35%, self 65%; housework: is split 50:50.
    4. Living costs are all covered by husband; wife does 80% of housework.
    5. Husband washes dishes and does the vacuuming.
    6. Living costs are all covered by husband; housework is split 70:30 between wife and husband.
  6. Do you receive money from your parents?
    1. No.
    2. No; on the contrary, they support their parents financially.
    3. Gives mother $50 per month.
    4. No.
    5. No.
    6. Has promised to give one month’s worth of annual salary to parents.
    7. No.
    8. No.
    9. No.
    10. Rb500/month.
    11. 20% of living expenses.
    12. Parents are dead.
    13. Gives small sums to parents; buys food himself.
    14. Has no earnings because she is a student, so receives $100 per month.
    15. Receives Rb3,000 – 6,000 per month from parents.
    16. No.
    17. No.
    18. No.
    19. Receives money, but no set amount.
    20. Receives money from parents (no amount specified).
    21. No; on the contrary, they support their parents financially.
    22. No.
    23. No.
    24. No.
    25. Rb1,000 (each month from parents).
    1. No. Gives $100 each month to mother.
    2. No.
    3. Receives $500/$600 per month.
    4. Occasionally receives Rb3,000 per month.
    5. “Unfortunately” receives money. Amount not specified.
    6. Receives $50 once a year from parents on her birthday.
    7. Does not receive money from parents but also cannot give them material assistance.
    8. Parents give grandchildren amounts varying from Rb100 to $50.
  7. With whom do you live?
    1. Mother.
    2. Parents and other family members and relatives, one dog, two cats.
    3. Husband, cat.
    4. Mother, father.
    5. Mother, father, husband, siblings.
    6. Lives alone (separated, divorced).
    7. Mother, father.
    8. Lives alone (separated, divorced).
    9. Father, mother, younger sister.
    10. Mother, older sister.
    11. Lives alone.
    12. Wife, two daughters, one son, dog, cat.
    13. Mother.
    14. Mother, father, grandmother, dog; older brother and sister live elsewhere.
    15. Mother, father, husband.
    16. Rents a room and lives alone.
    17. Mother, younger sister.
    18. Wife, child.
    19. Mother, father, grandmother.
    20. Mother, father, husband, dog.
    21. Mother, father.
    22. Mother.
    23. Husband, daughter.
    24. Husband, two children.
    25. Mother, father, older brother.
    1. Mother, younger sister.
    2. Wife, two daughters, one cat.
    3. Wife, two sons.
    4. Mother, father.
    5. Mother, husband, daughter.
    6. Daughter, cousin.
    7. Husband, three children.
  8. How many m2 is the apartment where you now live? (In Russia, measurements of the area of apartments include only the living areas, excluding the hall, corridors, kitchen, bathroom, toilet, veranda and storage rooms, so the real size is considerably larger.)
    1. No response.
    2. More than one floor, 32m2, two rooms.
    3. Two-roomed apartment.
    4. One-roomed apartment.
    5. Rented apartment, 40m2 f.Two-roomed apartment.
    6. Two-roomed apartment.
    7. Hall of residence for students.
    8. No response.
    9. 45m2 (Zelenograd, on the outskirts of Moscow).
    10. Three-roomed apartment (in the city).
    11. 50m2.
    12. Three rooms, 45m2.
    13. One-room, kitchen.
    14. 108m2.
    15. Three-roomed apartment.
    16. Rented room.
    17. Three-roomed apartment.
    18. Two-roomed apartment.
    19. Two-roomed apartment.
    20. Three rooms, 59m2.
    21. Two-roomed apartment.
    22. Three-roomed apartment, 72m2.
    23. Two-roomed apartment.
    24. Two-roomed apartment, 65m2.
    25. Three-roomed apartment in central Moscow.
    1. Three-roomed apartment.
    2. Two-roomed apartment, 25m2.
    3. 66m2 apartment.
    4. Two-roomed apartment.
    5. Three-roomed apartment (in the city).
    6. Two-roomed apartment.
    7. Two-roomed apartment.
    8. Two-roomed apartment.
  9. Do you have a religion?
    1. Not religious but likes churches.
    2. Devout Russian Orthodox.
    3. Non-believer.
    4. Russian Orthodox.
    5. Non-believer.
    6. Non-believer.
    7. Buddhist.
    8. Russian Orthodox.
    9. I reserve my right to complete freedom of belief.
    10. Russian Orthodox.
    11. Buddhist.
    12. Devout Russian Orthodox.
    13. No response.
    14. Russian Orthodox.
    15. Devout Russian Orthodox.
    16. Russian Orthodox.
    17. Russian Orthodox.
    18. Russian Orthodox.
    19. Russian Orthodox.
    20. Non-believer.
    21. Russian Orthodox.
    22. Russian Orthodox.
    23. Atheist.
    24. Russian Orthodox.
    25. Cosmopolitan.
    26. Russian Orthodox.
    1. Russian Orthodox.
    2. Russian Orthodox.
    3. Christian.
    4. Non-believer.
    5. Russian Orthodox.
    6. Muslim.
    7. Buddhist.
  10. What three things do you want the most?
    1. To get a job at a TV station; to live with her partner; to go to Japan.
    2. Happiness; to visit Japan.
    3. A good job and a good husband.
    4. An interesting job; a reasonable salary; a good part-time job.
    5. To buy an apartment; a baby; to write a book.
    6. Health and strength.
    7. Money.
    8. An apartment.
    9. Happiness; health; love.
    10. Self-discipline; to learn many things; good preparation for entering society.
    11. To go to India; to see friends she has not seen for a long time; a house.
    12. To travel the world; a profitable business; to have a house in France.
    13. Peace; work; health.
    14. To see the partner; to become a professional expert; to have own apartment.
    15. Peace; a good workplace with good pay; for all her family to be healthy.
    16. An apartment; children; a good job.
    17. A television; a car; a new suit.
    18. To go to Japan.
    19. World peace; the happiness of the people she loves; freedom.
    20. To obtain good grades in his studies; to go to Japan for training.
    21. Health; work; children.
    22. To master Japanese.
    23. A woman; money; children.
    24. To master Japanese; to go to Japan; to work with Japanese people.
    25. A stable country; moral contentment/activities that afford economic independence; the health of her nearest and dearest.
    26. Higher education; a good job; a good family.
    1. A family; money; work.
    2. Work; a dance partner; a new apartment.
    3. Money; to go to Japan again.
    4. Peace; health; a two-storey house with garden on the outskirts of Moscow.
    5. To work with like-minded people; love.
    6. To master Japanese; a spacious apartment; a good workplace.
    7. Good pay; a good husband; a spacious apartment.
    8. For everyone to be healthy; peace in her family; good health and a long life.
  11. What kind of car do you want?
    1. A Russian car.
    2. Don’t need a car.
    3. A car with a driver.
    4. Don’t need a car.
    5. Honda CRV.
    6. A fast car that doesn’t break down often.
    7. Don’t need a car.
    8. Don’t need a car.
    9. Any car would be fine.
    10. Medium-sized car.
    11. Any car would be fine as long as it goes.
    12. A large Mercedes / a new car.
    13. A good, cheap car.
    14. Don’t need a car.
    15. A large Range Rover.
    16. Audi A8.
    17. BMW.
    18. Any car would be fine.
    19. Don’t need a car. Fiat Tipo.
    20. A compact car that doesn’t break down often.
    21. A large, stylish car.
    22. Hasn’t thought about it before, but it might be convenient to have a car.
    23. Don’t need a car.
    24. Mitsubishi Pajero.
    25. Public transport, which minimizes pollution, is sufficient; doesn’t need her own car.
    26. Peugeot 206 or Skoda Habia.
    1. A large car.
    2. Already has a car.
    3. Hates cars.
    4. Doesn’t need a car.
    5. Don’t need a car.
    6. A small Honda.
    7. A cheap but strong car; a Russian Zhiguli (Lada) or a small Mazda or Toyota.
  12. What are your three favorite countries? If possible, please give reasons for your choice.
    1. Russia (my soul); Japan (my dream; studying Japanese); UK (many friends there).
    2. Russia (homeland); Japan (yearns to go there); France (friends live there).
    3. Russia (homeland); Japan (beautiful; country in which they are interested).
    4. Russia (homeland); Japan (second homeland; lived in Niigata for five years).
    5. Russia; Japan; Netherlands. f. Lithuania (lived there as a child).
    6. Lithuania (lived there as a child).
    7. Russia (my soul); Japan (my dream; studying Japanese); UK (many friends there).
    8. Russia (homeland); Japan (beautiful; country in which they are interested).
    9. Japan; Italy; France.
    10. Russia (homeland); Ukraine (parents’ homeland); Japan (loves the culture and language).
    11. India (a free country where one can do what one wants); Bhutan (an exotic mountain kingdom); Tibet (likes this mysterious country before it became part of China).
    12. Japan (Haven’t been there; has an ancient culture and traditions and develops new things); France (good weather; beautiful scenery); Germany (orderly; highly intellectual).
    13. Russia (homeland); Japan (kind people).
    14. Russia (homeland); Japan (doing Japan-related research); Finland (summer resort).
    15. Russia (doesn’t go abroad); France; Japan (interested in the culture and language).
    16. Russia (homeland); Bali (interested in nature); Italy (history/historic ruins).
    17. Russia (homeland); Japan (unusual country); USA (advanced country).
    18. Japan (Haven’t been there; has an ancient culture and traditions and develops new things); France (good weather; beautiful scenery); Germany (orderly; highly intellectual).
    19. Spain (warm); Italy (wants to participate in the carnival in Venice).
    20. Russia (homeland); Japan (beautiful; country in which they are interested).
    21. Russia (was born there); Japan (the people are attractive and good); Czech Republic (a country where people who have the ability to solve conflicts peacefully live).
    22. Russia (homeland); Japan (doing Japan-related research); Finland (summer resort).
    23. Japan (has lived there); Spain (has friends there); Russia (was born there).
    24. Russia (Moscow or St. Petersburg); France (Paris); Germany (hasn’t been to Japan so can’t choose Japan).
    25. Hasn’t lived in or seen with her own eyes any country other than Russia so can’t comment.
    26. Russia (homeland); Japan (studying Japanese at present); Sweden.
    1. Russia (homeland); Japan (loves the country); Italy (wonderful country).
    2. Japan (can speak Japanese; likes the Japanese mentality); USA (a free country); Russia.
    3. Wants to go to Japan many times.
    4. Russia; Japan; Germany.
    5. Russia; Ukraine; Mexico.
    6. UK; Japan; Latvia.
    7. Japan (specializes in Japanese literature); Russia (lives there); Kyrgyz tan (homeland).
    8. Russia.
  13. Where would you like to live?
    1. Russia.
    2. Japan.
    3. Japan.
    4. Russia.
    5. Russia.
    6. France.
    7. Russia.
    8. Japan.
    9. Japan.
    10. Russia.
    11. India.
    12. Japan. France.
    13. Russia.
    14. Japan.
    15. France or Japan (if it wasn’t forever).
    16. Russia.
    17. Japan.
    18. Japan.
    19. No response.
    20. Japan.
    21. Russia.
    22. Japan (have lived there previously).
    23. A peaceful country.
    24. Russia.
    25. A stable country.
    26. Sweden.
    1. Japan.
    2. The U.S.
    3. Japan.
    4. Japan.
    5. Russia.
    6. UK.
    7. Japan.
    8. Russia.
  14. What hopes do you have for Russia?
    1. That its economic standard improves.
    2. That it becomes a country where one can live as a normal human being.
    3. For its recovery and the development of the economy, more than anything else.
    4. Unfortunately it is not possible to hope for improvements in Russia in the near future, but hopes that eventually Russia will become a strong country again, both politically and economically.
    5. That it will provide its citizens with a higher level of education and give greater consideration to children. That it will become a country in which parents will love their children and children will help their parents.
    6. That people will become wiser and more enterprising.
    7. Economic stability and safety.
    8. Safety.
    9. Ultimately, for Russia to rise again and prosper in the near future. At the very least, respondent plans to do her utmost to fulfil her own potential through her own efforts.
    10. That it becomes less totalitarian, that it places greater value on its people’s right to live, and that it becomes a country with little hatred and greed, which respects human rights (individuals’ right to live, right to freedom and freedom of belief).
    11. That it becomes a well-managed country in which there is little corruption.
    12. That people have kind hearts.
    13. That there are no wars.
    14. That it becomes a prosperous, strong country, both in military and economic terms, without borrowing foreign capital.
    15. That it becomes a stronger country.
    16. No response.
    17. That it cares for and respects its citizens.
    18. That it respects its citizens’ rights more.
    19. That it becomes more orderly.
    20. That all possible efforts are rapidly made to make Russia a country in which its citizens can have confidence.
    21. Nothing.
    22. That more Japanese come to live in Russia and that more Japanese companies establish bases here.
    23. Nothing. Nothing good has happened over the last ten years.
    24. That it extricates itself from the economic crisis. The development of industry and, as a result, the improvement of living standards.
    1. That it becomes a more prosperous country.
    2. That its economic standard improves. stability, order; good human relationships in companies, society and families.
    3. Peace and economic prosperity.
    4. Stability, peace, economic development and safety.
    5. Everything must be made better.
    6. That Russians become happier.
    7. For a prosperous society in which the government loves the citizens and takes care of them.
  15. What do you think about Japan?
    1. A mountainous country with small houses.
    2. Japanese people have done well to live in such a terribly small country for so many centuries.
    3. No response.
    4. Japan is going through a difficult period due to a financial crisis and non-performing bonds that are causing banks to collapse. The country’s leaders should provide leadership to the masses through bold policies for a while. Japan’s current situation could even be said to be very similar to Russia’s.
    5. Japan is the country with the most democratic constitution. Other countries should be able to reach Japan’s level.
    6. Has not seen Japan with her own eyes, so cannot say anything about it.
    7. Japan is a wonderful country in many respects, but it is hard for foreigners to live there.
    8. A wonderful country.
    9. A country with a deeply interesting culture.
    10. Cannot help but be amazed by this country with its centuries of tradition and diligent national character. Would like to bind her own destiny to that of Japan.
    11. Japan has various rules and many taboos, and seems to be a country without freedom. Japanese people don’t say their opinions and often don’t even have opinions of their own. However, they are diligent and can be proud that they rebuilt their country after the war. Japanese people’s differing world-view and the existence of lots of loan-words from English in Japanese, the meanings of which differ quite considerably from the original English, complicate matters for foreigners trying to master the language. Japanese people excel at carrying out work rather than as leaders and it seems that Japan has no excellent leaders at present. Japanese companies are being hijacked by foreign capital, and I have heard that the number of foreigners who manage companies there is increasing. However, Russia has a lot to learn from Japan, in terms of Japanese people’s mutual respect, good manners and care for resources. Her Japanese friends are earnest. Another good point is that, in contrast to Russian, the Japanese language has few curse words. Japanese people have a long average life expectancy and the fact that they have a second youth when they learn a new lifestyle from the age of 60 is wonderful.
    12. It is a highly interesting country, steeped in mystery. These characteristic features are underpinned by its ancient traditions and up-to-date science and economy.
    13. Likes Japanese culture, particularly Japanese poetry, literature and film, but modern Japan is being poisoned by computer games. Interested in kabuki, noh, bunraku, judo, sumo; Tokyo, Kyoto, Nikko, Kamakura, Hokkaido; sashimi, sushi, rice, tofu, udon, sukiyaki; and Japanese gardens, stone gardens, shrines and temples.
    14. A country with many good, kind people.
    15. It is the leading nation in Asia, against which Russia fought and wanted to win. Interested in its diverse culture, traditions and ideas. It is difficult to understand Japan using a European way of thinking. It is a country with a beautiful natural environment and a unique outlook on the universe.
    16. Japan is an interesting country with long-standing oriental traditions. A prosperous, happy country.
    17. It is a country he doesn’t understand well, but there are things that should be learned from its work methods.
    18. Difficult to judge because she hasn’t been there, but it is the world’s most attractive cultured nation.
    19. She respects this very orderly country and its citizens, but good and bad aspects have come to light in recent years.
    20. Japan differs from Russia in many ways, but these are all good.
    21. It is a beautiful, good, capable country with highly developed technology and beautiful music that is similar to Russian music. The enthusiasm for children’s education there is admirable.
    22. Lived in Japan for two years and wants to go there again many times in the future. Understands Japan to some extent and loves the atmosphere there.
    23. Like it a great deal.
    24. It is a progressive country with diverse traditions and culture.
    25. Its high technological level speaks for itself. Japan’s respect for the cultures of other.countries is in marked contrast to the U.S.
    26. It is a highly developed country with great scientific and technological potential and high standards of living. It has been blessed with a long history and abundant cultural traditions. The Japanese are good and considerate people.
    1. It is a beautiful country.
    2. It is a beautiful, prosperous country of culture and traditions, which is well developed in many areas.
    3. Like it a great deal. It is an interesting country with an ancient culture.
    4. Japan is a dynamic country and all will go well as long as it does not aim to become a great military nation again or gain hegemony.
    5. The Japanese have gained a considerable amount of liberty, but there is still a lot of tension.
    6. Japan is a country in which ancient traditions and cutting-edge technology are in harmony with each other.
    7. It is a materially prosperous country, but has a lot of problems.
  16. Of the things that have happened in the last year, which was the one about which you were most concerned/in which you were most interested?
    1. The terrorist attacks on New York; explosions.
    2. That we are no longer shocked by terrorism and have become inured to it – this is a terrible thing.
    3. The terrorist attacks in the U.S.
    4. The terrorist bombings in the U.S.
    5. Being able to go to Japan and meet wonderful Japanese friends.
    6. Scientific discoveries, inventions.
    7. Political terrorism in the Middle East.
    8. The situation in the Balkans.
    9. The tragedy in the U.S.
    10. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. on 11th September 2001.
    11. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. and the death of the Nepalese king.
    12. The new situation in Chechnya.
    13. The air-raids on Afghanistan by the U.S., a military superpower.
    14. Hardly ever reads the papers or watches TV so can’t comment.
    15. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. However, the military action in Afghanistan and the situation being created by the U.S. in the Middle East and on the borders of the newly-independent states, which used to be Russian territory, is also changing the global environment.
    16. The tension arising from the terrorist attacks in the U.S. and the fear that a third world war may begin.
    17. The destruction of the U.S. skyscrapers. Is a new war being shaped?
    18. The tragedy in the U.S. and Japan’s economic crisis.
    19. The negotiations for concluding a peace treaty between Japan and Russia.
    20. The U.S. bombing was terrifying.
    21. No response.
    22. The incident in Manhattan, New York.
    23. The terrorist attacks in the U.S.
    24. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. on 11th September 2001.
    25. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. on 11th September 2001.
    1. Mother’s illness.
    2. The terrorist attacks on New York; explosions.
    3. The terrorist attacks in the U.S.
    4. The large-scale bombings of New York and Washington D.C.
    5. The terrorist attacks in the U.S.
    6. The terrorist attacks in the U.S. This was a serious incident that changed the global situation.
    7. The terrorist attacks in the USA and the advent of the 21st century.

Feelings arising from the results of the survey

Other than the fact that they are all studying the Japanese language, those surveyed are average Muscovites. Sixteen years have passed since Perestroika in 1986, the large-scale inflation the country suffered has settled down and GDP finally increased in 2001, but it is still experiencing the kind of harsh situation that calls to mind life in post-war Japan. The life of salary earners is hard, which suggests that people are making ends meet by means of side jobs and kitchen gardens. Scholarships for students amount to a paltry sum, while it is impossible for their parents to live only on their pensions, as their value has been greatly eroded by inflation. The survey revealed that working people, as a matter of course, as well as students are ashamed to be receiving economic support from their parents. The bonds between parent and child and those of marriage are strong, in poverty-stricken Russia, where mutual support in such relationships is necessary, the development of the nuclear family is lagging behind. The inclusion of dogs and cats as family members differs from Japan. Although it is a vast country, living space is cramped; apartments built during the socialist era are becoming increasingly dilapidated and, although new apartment blocks are being built, their cost is beyond the reach of diligent salaried workers. There is a large income gap, but it is interesting to note that all respondents hoped for their income to double, regardless of its current level. The lowest level of living expenses cannot be deduced from the survey. The desire to purchase a car is extremely low and, given the terrible congestion on the roads, I was surprised at the number of people (the intelligentsia?) who responded that they did not need a car. With regard to the reply to the question about “three things you would like”, it is interesting that, although the respondents are relatively poor, replies contained unexpectedly few material things, with the vast majority opting for the spiritual and cerebral. Communism negated religion and there was a long period of religious oppression, but the number of believers has increased sharply since perestroika, something that is not unconnected with the spiritual life of Russians. On the other hand, Russians are terribly pragmatic and it is also a fact that they have a contradictory mentality, as a result of which their ethics change suddenly if the opportunity arises. The question “What hopes do you have for Russia?” elicited many responses that criticized Russians themselves; the rather anti-Japanese outlook of the young woman k. was deeply interesting in that it contained some piercing opinions. In response to both the questions about respondents’ three favorite countries and the countries where they would most like to live, Russia featured prominently, while the U.S. was conspicuous by its near-absence.

It was a lamentable oversight that I did not ask view of the President Putin. Moreover, Russians’ view of IT differs from that in Japan and the U.S., tending more towards Europe, and the permeation of computers and IT is still relatively low in Russia, so we wanted to dig further into the fact that, identifying their aims and objects more than Japan, they use them specifically as tools.

Russia is conservative and tends towards stagnation, both in economic and technological terms, but when all is said and done, it is a country of vast resources and, as reflected in the responses to the survey, the possibility cannot be discounted that the day will come when it blossoms as a global superpower once more.

Finally, I would like to add that, during my time with Mitsui Bussan, I was posted to Moscow for 15 years and Vienna for five, working on major machinery and plant projects with Soviet and Eastern European countries. For five years from 1990, I assisted with the Japan Sea-rim Economic Bloc concept in the International Affairs Division of Niigata Prefectural Office, and spent six years at the Moscow Japan Center, when I held management seminars for Russian managers. The Russian managers with whom I have become friendly over the course of my career all have great hopes for business with Japan. I would also like to express my gratitude for the opportunity to publish my three opinion pieces on the ERINA homepage over the last year.

[Translated by ERINA]